A number of interesting experiments were conducted in the mid 60's, by a team of scientists led by Irwin Shapiro. Shapiro devised an experiment to prove Einstein's relativity of time slowing and the Sun's gravity would curve space thereby forcing light to travel a longer distance as it passed by the Sun. This delta change in time could be measured by Shapiro's experiment.

His experiment was to direct a radar signal to Saturn and have the signal bounce off Saturn and then upon it's return to earth measure the time incurred. He would then repeat the experiment with the Sun essentially between the Earth and Saturn. This experiment was eventually done using a number of planets and the effect of the planets seems to be quite negligible.

As previously determined when light passes the Sun or star it takes longer to complete the round trip. This was confirmed by Shapiro's experiment.

Now with the results of his experiments he was now able to "reverse engineer" an equation to satisfy the results. He knew all of Einstein's 10 equations of relativity theory equations including those on mass and gravity and how it would alter time space, so he used Einstein's theories to develop his equation.

Shapiro knew the following

1) c, Speed of light

2) G, Newton's Gravity Constant

3) M, Mass of the Sun

4) GM, Therefore he was able to calculate the Sun's gravity constant.

5) Distances from Earth to Saturn,

His final equation, is stated as

and really an extension in many ways to Schwarzschild's equation determined in 1916.

When a scientists "reverse engineers" an equation to prove a theory, it often becomes a self fulfilling result. Shapiro used Schwarschild's equations which gave more of an exact solution to Einstein's field equations, which describe the interactions of gravity as it curves space time. By using an extension of Einstein's theory your conclusions are already predetermined and become self fulfilling. Is this scientific?

For a moment let us go back in time to 1964. Only this time it's not Shapiro that is conducting these experiments but someone named Straw Walker. There is also one other important difference...Einstein has never been born. Now would the resulting equation be the same?

After the conclusion of these same experiments; Straw Walker is amazed that time/space is somehow altered by the Sun, but unlike Einstein, he doesn't see that the mass and gravity of the Sun is relevant. (remember Einstein's equation does't exist)

Straw Walker believes the spinning magnetic field of the Sun is causing the time space distortion. He also believes as that light travels in the medium of time. This is opposite to Einstein's theory that light travels in the medium of the curved space as it by passes the mass of the Sun. This curved space acts as a 2 dimensional plane, as it warps around the mass of the Sun.

Straw Walker alternatively uses the magnetic field of the Sun to "reverse engineer" an equation to come up with the exact detected results. As in both equations the time variance is not dependent on the total distant travelled by the beam, but only as it passes near the Sun. Whether the beam is bounced off Mars or Jupiter the results will remain constant.

Maxwell was a Tesla/Einstein type genius. His equations developed in the mid 1800's were laws that showed the interaction of electricity, magnetic fields and magnetism. They were laws because their results were tested by various experiments, though today in some instances they do not apply. His equation were left on the very doorstep of Einstein's later equations of light and time.

Straw Walker uses Maxwell's equations to demonstrate that the Sun's magnetic field is distorting space time, and not the mass of the Sun. Instead of producing a curvature to space, the Sun magnetic field contracts space and slows time nearest the Sun. As an object enters this contracted space it accelerates to it's nearest point to the sun, (perigee) as demonstrated by a planet's orbits and then slows as it leaves this contracted space. Light reacts quite differently to the Sun's magnetic field. Instead of light's relative velocity increasing, it does the opposite and slows.

The real question is why? Einstein won his Nobel Prize by stating that light has mass, so then why is there a discrepancy between a planet velocity increasing and light's relative velocity decreasing.

Light doesn't travel in the medium of space, but travels in the medium of time. As time is slowed by the Sun's magnetic field the speed of light appears to us as slowing. The velocity of light is left unchanged but it's medium is slowed therefore a delta time is observed. Like an aircraft flying in it's medium of air and facing a head wind, the aircraft's air speed indicator is unchanged, but it's ETA to it's destination as changed. This is what happens to light as it enters into altered time. Light appears to slow from the observer, as if facing a head wind of slowing time, which results in a change in it's time of arrival.

Maxwell commented in 1864: "

*agreement of the results seems to show that light and magnetism are affections of the same substance, and that light is an electromagnetic disturbance propagated through the field according to electromagnetic laws."*

Therefore Straw Walker deducted that the Sun's magnetic field and NOT the mass of the Sun was causing the anomalies in the time/space results as light passed near the Sun.

The conclusions reached either by contracted space or curved space were exactly the same except the theories are different. It's like Einstein's theory is 2+2 =4, while Straw Walker's equation is 3+1 =4. Both give the same results but from different theories.

From a practical sense there is one extremely important difference in these two theories. Einstein's equations using mass to distort time/space cannot be artificially reproduced while Straw Walkers equation to simulate slowing of time and contracting space can be man made.. By controlling time and space, man then; "

*Has become God."*
Maxwell Wave Equation; States any Electromagnetic Plane wave travels at the speed of light and acts as light.

Straw Walker knows;

1) Maxwell's equations

2) Magnetic field of the Sun

3) c speed of light

4) d distances between planets

5) Shapiro's results

6) B Sun's magnetic field

Thus find c; by inserting Shapiro's time difference of 200 microsecond into the equation.

c will show a small decrease in speed, indicating a slowing of time.

In essence

** Man has become God**

Arabic word for doubt is;

شك
In the 1st Century Islamic scientists believed that the 1st step to advance science was to doubt. In their time it was to doubt the ancient Greek understanding of the Cosmology of the Universe and particularly the Solar system and how the observed solar system related to mathematical data.

It is the same today. We must always doubt if science is to advance. Does Einstein's theory of curved space to explain gravity relate to what's observed? The planets orbit in the Solar System on a flat plane and show no orbital curve. The galaxies are flat as a pancake as they orbit their central mass of the black holes and show no curvature to their orbits. If curved space exists and explains gravity then why does light "slow" as it passes through curved space and planets passing through this same curved space accelerate, as they follow Kepler's 2nd law? If space is curved would not they both react the same?

Einstein studied Maxwell's equations and used his ideas to eventually allow him to develop his own equations. Why did Einstein do a 180 degree turn from Maxwell's equations which were proven by experiment and use mass and Newton's gravity constant in his equation when Maxwell clearly stated that light is related to a electromagnetic phenomenon and not related to mass?

Later in 1888 Heinrich Hertz released an important paper relating to Maxwell's earlier studies.

He went on to conduct experiments to verify that electromagnetic waves exhibit lightlike behaviors of reflection, refraction, diffraction, and polarization, and later determined empirically the speed of wave travel is the same as the speed of light. Previous to this, electromagnetic fields travelling in space were not understood, but from these findings, Einstein later developed his gravity wave theory that he postulated would travel through space.
Was Einstein wrong? To doubt is the 1st sign of genius.

The Rosetta satellite upon landing on Comet 67P would give the scientific community an excellent opportunity to test Einstein's curved space theory.

Have the Rosetta satellite's probe fix it's instruments on the North star as it orbits the Sun. If Einstein is correct and mass curves space, then as the comet orbit is close to it's perigee there should be an angle deflection, indicating the satellite and comet are travelling in a curved path.

I predict NO such angle deflection is noted.

For further reading;

** {Pulsars; The Universe's Most Powerful Object Blog}**